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Sensors 2014, 14(10), 18993-19006; doi:10.3390/s141018993

Effects of Binary Mixtures of Inducers (Toluene Analogs) and of Metals on Bioluminescence Induction of a Recombinant Bioreporter Strain

Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyungbuk 712-749, Korea
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Sensing Pollution in Air, Water, and Soil)
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Abstract

This paper investigated the effects of binary mixtures of bioluminescence inducers (toluene, xylene isomers, m-toluate) and of metals (Cu, Cd, As(III), As(V), and Cr) on bioluminescence activity of recombinant (Pm-lux) strain KG1206. Different responses and sensitivities were observed depending on the types and concentrations of mixtures of inducers or metals. In the case of inducer mixtures, antagonistic and synergistic modes of action were observed, whereas metal mixtures showed all three modes of action. Antagonistic mode of action was most common for mixtures of indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence ranging from 29% to 62% of theoretically expected effects (P(E)). On the other hand, synergistic mode of action was observed for mixtures of direct and indirect inducers, which showed bioluminescence between 141% and 243% of P(E). In the case of binary metal mixtures, bioluminescence activities were ranged from 62% to 75% and 113% to 164% of P(E) for antagonistic and synergistic modes of action, respectively (p-values 0.0001–0.038). Therefore, mixture effects could not be generalized since they were dependent on both the types and concentrations of chemicals, suggesting that biomonitoring may constitute a better strategy by investigating types and concentrations of mixture pollutants at contaminated sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: binary mixture; bioluminescence; biomonitoring; inducers; metals; recombinant; toluene analogs binary mixture; bioluminescence; biomonitoring; inducers; metals; recombinant; toluene analogs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kong, I.C. Effects of Binary Mixtures of Inducers (Toluene Analogs) and of Metals on Bioluminescence Induction of a Recombinant Bioreporter Strain. Sensors 2014, 14, 18993-19006.

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