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Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19660-19668; doi:10.3390/s141019660

In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green

1
School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 1370, Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
2
Departments of Creative IT Engineering and Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ~1.5–5 mm) was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit). Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic tomography; fluorescence image; cystography; indocyanine green photoacoustic tomography; fluorescence image; cystography; indocyanine green
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, S.; Kim, J.; Jeon, M.; Song, J.; Kim, C. In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green. Sensors 2014, 14, 19660-19668.

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