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Sensors 2014, 14(1), 1691-1704; doi:10.3390/s140101691
Article

Wireless Displacement Sensing Enabled by Metamaterial Probes for Remote Structural Health Monitoring

1,* , 1
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2
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3
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1
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1,4,*
1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, UNAM—Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800, Turkey 2 Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara TR-06800, Turkey 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft Collins, CO 80523, USA 4 School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a wireless, passive, metamaterial-based sensor that allows for remotely monitoring submicron displacements over millimeter ranges. The sensor comprises a probe made of multiple nested split ring resonators (NSRRs) in a double-comb architecture coupled to an external antenna in its near-field. In operation, the sensor detects displacement of a structure onto which the NSRR probe is attached by telemetrically tracking the shift in its local frequency peaks. Owing to the NSRR’s near-field excitation response, which is highly sensitive to the displaced comb-teeth over a wide separation, the wireless sensing system exhibits a relatively high resolution (<1 µm) and a large dynamic range (over 7 mm), along with high levels of linearity (R2 > 0.99 over 5 mm) and sensitivity (>12.7 MHz/mm in the 1–3 mm range). The sensor is also shown to be working in the linear region in a scenario where it is attached to a standard structural reinforcing bar. Because of its wireless and passive nature, together with its low cost, the proposed system enabled by the metamaterial probes holds a great promise for applications in remote structural health monitoring.
Keywords: displacement sensor; metamaterial; structural health monitoring displacement sensor; metamaterial; structural health monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ozbey, B.; Unal, E.; Ertugrul, H.; Kurc, O.; Puttlitz, C.M.; Erturk, V.B.; Altintas, A.; Demir, H.V. Wireless Displacement Sensing Enabled by Metamaterial Probes for Remote Structural Health Monitoring. Sensors 2014, 14, 1691-1704.

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