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A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, Madrid 28040, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2013; in revised form: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
Abstract: This paper presents a novel self-timed multi-purpose sensor especially conceived for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of the sensor is to measure performance variations during the life-cycle of the device, such as process variability, critical path timing and temperature variations. The proposed topology, through the use of both combinational and sequential FPGA elements, amplifies the time of a signal traversing a delay chain to produce a pulse whose width is the sensor’s measurement. The sensor is fully self-timed, avoiding the need for clock distribution networks and eliminating the limitations imposed by the system clock. One single off- or on-chip time-to-digital converter is able to perform digitization of several sensors in a single operation. These features allow for a simplified approach for designers wanting to intertwine a multi-purpose sensor network with their application logic. Employed as a temperature sensor, it has been measured to have an error of ±0.67 °C, over the range of 20–100 °C, employing 20 logic elements with a 2-point calibration.
Keywords: sensor; delay; temperature; FPGA; monitoring; PVT variations; clockless; aging; self-timed
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Osuna, C.G.; Ituero, P.; López-Vallejo, M. A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Sensors 2014, 14, 129-143.
Osuna CG, Ituero P, López-Vallejo M. A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Sensors. 2014; 14(1):129-143.
Osuna, Carlos G.; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa. 2014. "A Self-Timed Multipurpose Delay Sensor for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)." Sensors 14, no. 1: 129-143.