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Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Avda. de la Universitat, s/n, Burjassot 46100, Spain
INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029, Portugal
INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2013; in revised form: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function Ζt(jf) is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current, Ζt(jf)=Vo,sensor(jf)/Isensor(jf). The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin-valve (GMR-SV) and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.
Keywords: electrical current measurement; magnetoresistance sensor; fractional systems; systems identification
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Ravelo Arias, S.I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D.; Sánchez Moreno, J.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Peixeiro de Freitas, P.J. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors. Sensors 2013, 13, 17516-17533.
Ravelo Arias SI, Ramírez Muñoz D, Sánchez Moreno J, Cardoso S, Ferreira R, Peixeiro de Freitas PJ. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):17516-17533.
Ravelo Arias, Sergio I.; Ramírez Muñoz, Diego; Sánchez Moreno, Jaime; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; Peixeiro de Freitas, Paulo J. 2013. "Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors." Sensors 13, no. 12: 17516-17533.