Sensors 2013, 13(8), 9878-9895; doi:10.3390/s130809878
Article

Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications

1,* email, 1email, 1email and 2email
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 29 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF) transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs) in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of −122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of −120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.
Keywords: CMOS; direct-modulation; phase-locked loop (PLL); radio frequency (RF); short-range; voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO); wireless transmitter
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Desouki, M.M.; Qasim, S.M.; BenSaleh, M.; Deen, M.J. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications. Sensors 2013, 13, 9878-9895.

AMA Style

El-Desouki MM, Qasim SM, BenSaleh M, Deen MJ. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):9878-9895.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Desouki, Munir M.; Qasim, Syed M.; BenSaleh, Mohammed; Deen, M. J. 2013. "Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications." Sensors 13, no. 8: 9878-9895.

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