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Sensors 2013, 13(8), 10052-10073; doi:10.3390/s130810052
Article

A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use

1
, 2,*  and 1
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 7 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird’s eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system.
Keywords: marker recognition; automated guided vehicle; vision based AGV system; bird’s eye view; marker matching marker recognition; automated guided vehicle; vision based AGV system; bird’s eye view; marker matching
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.; Hyun, C.-H.; Park, M. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use. Sensors 2013, 13, 10052-10073.

AMA Style

Lee J, Hyun C-H, Park M. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):10052-10073.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon. 2013. "A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use." Sensors 13, no. 8: 10052-10073.


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