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A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea
Division of Electrical Electronic and Control Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam 331-717, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 7 August 2013
Abstract: We propose an intelligent vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system using fiduciary markers. In this paper, we explore a low-cost, efficient vehicle guiding method using a consumer grade web camera and fiduciary markers. In the proposed method, the system uses fiduciary markers with a capital letter or triangle indicating direction in it. The markers are very easy to produce, manipulate, and maintain. The marker information is used to guide a vehicle. We use hue and saturation values in the image to extract marker candidates. When the known size fiduciary marker is detected by using a bird’s eye view and Hough transform, the positional relation between the marker and the vehicle can be calculated. To recognize the character in the marker, a distance transform is used. The probability of feature matching was calculated by using a distance transform, and a feature having high probability is selected as a captured marker. Four directional signals and 10 alphabet features are defined and used as markers. A 98.87% recognition rate was achieved in the testing phase. The experimental results with the fiduciary marker show that the proposed method is a solution for an indoor AGV system.
Keywords: marker recognition; automated guided vehicle; vision based AGV system; bird’s eye view; marker matching
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lee, J.; Hyun, C.-H.; Park, M. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use. Sensors 2013, 13, 10052-10073.
Lee J, Hyun C-H, Park M. A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use. Sensors. 2013; 13(8):10052-10073.
Lee, Jeisung; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon. 2013. "A Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle System with Marker Recognition for Indoor Use." Sensors 13, no. 8: 10052-10073.