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Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8199-8221; doi:10.3390/s130708199
Article

Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves

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Received: 19 April 2013; in revised form: 14 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 26 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract: Driving safety has become a global topic of discussion with the recent development of the Smart Car concept. Many of the current car safety monitoring systems are based on image discrimination techniques, such as sensing the vehicle drifting from the main road, or changes in the driver’s facial expressions. However, these techniques are either too simplistic or have a low success rate as image processing is easily affected by external factors, such as weather and illumination. We developed a drowsiness detection mechanism based on an electroencephalogram (EEG) reading collected from the driver with an off-the-shelf mobile sensor. This sensor employs wireless transmission technology and is suitable for wear by the driver of a vehicle. The following classification techniques were incorporated: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and k Nearest Neighbor. These classifiers were integrated with integration functions after a genetic algorithm was first used to adjust the weighting for each classifier in the integration function. In addition, since past studies have shown effects of music on a person’s state-of-mind, we propose a personalized music recommendation mechanism as a part of our system. Through the in-car stereo system, this music recommendation mechanism can help prevent a driver from becoming drowsy due to monotonous road conditions. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed drowsiness detection method to determine a driver’s state of mind, and the music recommendation system is therefore able to reduce drowsiness.
Keywords: classifier; drowsy detection; EEG sensor; electroencephalogram; refreshing music classifier; drowsy detection; EEG sensor; electroencephalogram; refreshing music
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, N.-H.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-M. Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves. Sensors 2013, 13, 8199-8221.

AMA Style

Liu N-H, Chiang C-Y, Hsu H-M. Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves. Sensors. 2013; 13(7):8199-8221.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Ning-Han; Chiang, Cheng-Yu; Hsu, Hsiang-Ming. 2013. "Improving Driver Alertness through Music Selection Using a Mobile EEG to Detect Brainwaves." Sensors 13, no. 7: 8199-8221.



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