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Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2013; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Abstract: The paper presents the potential of an electronic nose technique in the field of fast diagnostics of patients suspected of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The investigations were performed using a simple electronic nose prototype equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors manufactured by FIGARO Co. They were aimed at verification of a possibility of differentiation between model reference mixtures with potential COPD markers (N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide). These mixtures contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, isoprene, carbon disulphide, propan-2-ol, formamide, benzene, toluene, acetonitrile, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, dimethyl sulphide, acrolein, furan, propanol and pyridine, recognized as the components of exhaled air. The model reference mixtures were prepared at three concentration levels—10 ppb, 25 ppb, 50 ppb v/v—of each component, except for the COPD markers. Concentration of the COPD markers in the mixtures was from 0 ppb to 100 ppb v/v. Interpretation of the obtained data employed principal component analysis (PCA). The investigations revealed the usefulness of the electronic device only in the case when the concentration of the COPD markers was twice as high as the concentration of the remaining components of the mixture and for a limited number of basic mixture components.
Keywords: electronic nose; VOC; MOS; PCA; COPD
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MDPI and ACS Style
Dymerski, T.; Gębicki, J.; Wiśniewska, P.; Śliwińska, M.; Wardencki, W.; Namieśnik, J. Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers. Sensors 2013, 13, 5008-5027.
Dymerski T, Gębicki J, Wiśniewska P, Śliwińska M, Wardencki W, Namieśnik J. Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):5008-5027.
Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek. 2013. "Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers." Sensors 13, no. 4: 5008-5027.