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Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3635-3651; doi:10.3390/s130303635
Article

Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode

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Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
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Abstract: Abstract: We report the fabrication and characterisation of the first graphene ring micro electrodes with the addition of a miniature concentric Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The graphene ring electrode is formed by dip coating fibre optics with graphene produced by a modified Hummers method. The reference electrode is formed using an established photocatalytically initiated electroless deposition (PIED) plating method. The performance of the so-formed graphene ring micro electrodes (GRiMEs) and associated reference electrode is studied using the probe redox system ferricyanide and electrode thicknesses assessed using established electrochemical methods. Using 220 µm diameter fibre optics, a ~15 nm thick graphene ring electrode is obtained corresponding to an inner to outer radius ratio of >0.999, so allowing for use of extant analytical descriptions of very thin ring microelectrodes in data analysis. GRiMEs are highly reliable (current response invariant over >3,000 scans), with the concentric reference electrode showing comparable stability (current response invariant over >300 scans). Furthermore the micro-ring design allows for efficient use of electrochemically active graphene edge sites and the associated nA scale currents obtained neatly obviate issues relating to the high resistivity of undoped graphene. Thus, the use of graphene in ring microelectrodes improves the reliability of existing micro-electrode designs and expands the range of use of graphene-based electrochemical devices.
Keywords: graphene electrode; ring electrode; graphene electrochemistry; nano graphene electrode; ring electrode; graphene electrochemistry; nano
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dickinson, J.W.; Bromley, M.; Andrieux, F.P.L.; Boxall, C. Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode. Sensors 2013, 13, 3635-3651.

AMA Style

Dickinson JW, Bromley M, Andrieux FPL, Boxall C. Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode. Sensors. 2013; 13(3):3635-3651.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dickinson, James W.; Bromley, Michael; Andrieux, Fabrice P.L.; Boxall, Colin. 2013. "Fabrication and Characterisation of the Graphene Ring Micro Electrode (GRiME) with an Integrated, Concentric Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode." Sensors 13, no. 3: 3635-3651.



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