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Sensors 2013, 13(3), 3432-3444; doi:10.3390/s130303432
Article

Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications

1, 1
, 1
, 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 5,*
1 Computación, ICBI, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, Apartaddo Postal 42000, Mexico 2 Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica-SEES, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado postal 14740, Mexico D.F. 07000, Mexico 3 Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México, D.F. 01000, Mexico 4 Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, 04510, D.F. 07340, Mexico 5 Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Ticomán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. 07340, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 12 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
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Abstract

Chromium and ruthenium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cr) and (ZnO:Ru) thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. A 0.6 M solution of zinc acetate dihydrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine was used as basic solution. Chromium (III) acetylacetonate and Ruthenium (III) trichloride were used as doping sources. The Ru incorporation and its distribution profile into the films were proved by the SIMS technique. The morphology and structure of the films were studied by SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements, respectively. The SEM images show porous surfaces covered by small grains with different grain size, depending on the doping element, and the immersions number into the doping solutions. The sensing properties of ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films in a propane (C3H8) atmosphere, as a function of the immersions number in the doping solution, have been studied in the present work. The highest sensitivity values were obtained for films doped from five immersions, 5.8 and 900, for ZnO:Cr and ZnO:Ru films, respectively. In order to evidence the catalytic effect of the chromium (Cr) and ruthenium (Ru), the sensing characteristics of undoped ZnO films are reported as well.
Keywords: zinc oxide; thin solid films; sol-gel zinc oxide; thin solid films; sol-gel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gómez-Pozos, H.; González-Vidal, J.L.; Torres, G.A.; Rodríguez-Baez, J.; Maldonado, A.; de la Luz Olvera, M.; Acosta, D.R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.; Castañeda, L. Chromium and Ruthenium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Propane Sensing Applications. Sensors 2013, 13, 3432-3444.

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