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Illumination of the Spatial Order of Intracellular pH by Genetically Encoded pH-Sensitive Sensors
Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Center of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 27 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
Abstract: Fluorescent proteins have been extensively used for engineering genetically encoded sensors that can monitor levels of ions, enzyme activities, redox potential, and metabolites. Certain fluorescent proteins possess specific pH-dependent spectroscopic features, and thus can be used as indicators of intracellular pH. Moreover, concatenated pH-sensitive proteins with target proteins pin the pH sensors to a definite location within the cell, compartment, or tissue. This study provides an overview of the continually expanding family of pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins that have become essential tools for studies of pH homeostasis and cell physiology. We describe and discuss the design of intensity-based and ratiometric pH sensors, their spectral properties and pH-dependency, as well as their performance. Finally, we illustrate some examples of the applications of pH sensors targeted at different subcellular compartments.
Keywords: pH homeostasis; intensity-based pH-sensitive sensor; ratiometric transgene pH indicator; flow cytometry; microscopy
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Benčina, M. Illumination of the Spatial Order of Intracellular pH by Genetically Encoded pH-Sensitive Sensors. Sensors 2013, 13, 16736-16758.
Benčina M. Illumination of the Spatial Order of Intracellular pH by Genetically Encoded pH-Sensitive Sensors. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):16736-16758.
Benčina, Mojca. 2013. "Illumination of the Spatial Order of Intracellular pH by Genetically Encoded pH-Sensitive Sensors." Sensors 13, no. 12: 16736-16758.