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Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Abstract: The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s).
Keywords: electronic nose; agricultural distillates; PCA; cluster analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Dymerski, T.; Gębicki, J.; Wardencki, W.; Namieśnik, J. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose. Sensors 2013, 13, 15954-15967.
Dymerski T, Gębicki J, Wardencki W, Namieśnik J. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):15954-15967.
Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek. 2013. "Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose." Sensors 13, no. 12: 15954-15967.