Sensors 2013, 13(11), 15532-15548; doi:10.3390/s131115532
Article

Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

Received: 10 October 2013; in revised form: 3 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.
Keywords: electronic nose; smell; mushrooms; humidity; alcohol; variation; z-score; standardization; flavor; Le Nez du Vin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujioka, K.; Shimizu, N.; Manome, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Tomizawa, Y. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation. Sensors 2013, 13, 15532-15548.

AMA Style

Fujioka K, Shimizu N, Manome Y, Ikeda K, Yamamoto K, Tomizawa Y. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation. Sensors. 2013; 13(11):15532-15548.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko. 2013. "Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation." Sensors 13, no. 11: 15532-15548.

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