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Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Warmwater Aquaculture Research Unit, Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center, P. O. Box 38, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Abstract: The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P < 0.05). The A32S e-nose effectively discriminated between good-flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.
Keywords: artificial olfaction; electronic aroma detection; fish meat quality; volatile organic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wilson, A.D.; Oberle, C.S.; Oberle, D.F. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology. Sensors 2013, 13, 15968-15984.
Wilson AD, Oberle CS, Oberle DF. Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):15968-15984.
Wilson, Alphus D.; Oberle, Charisse S.; Oberle, Daniel F. 2013. "Detection of Off-Flavor in Catfish Using a Conducting Polymer Electronic-Nose Technology." Sensors 13, no. 12: 15968-15984.