Sensors 2013, 13(12), 15912-15936; doi:10.3390/s131215912

GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems

1, 2email, 1,* email, 1 and 1
Received: 17 September 2013; in revised form: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of leakage in water distribution systems through the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method. Laboratory tests are performed to extract features of water leakage from the obtained GPR images. Moreover, a test in a real-world urban system under real conditions is performed. Feature extraction is performed by interpreting GPR images with the support of a pre-processing methodology based on an appropriate combination of statistical methods and multi-agent systems. The results of these tests are presented, interpreted, analyzed and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: water leak identification; ground penetrating radar (GPR); non-destructive methods; signal and image processing and analysis; water supply systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ayala–Cabrera, D.; Herrera, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Ocaña–Levario, S.J.; Pérez–García, R. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems. Sensors 2013, 13, 15912-15936.

AMA Style

Ayala–Cabrera D, Herrera M, Izquierdo J, Ocaña–Levario SJ, Pérez–García R. GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems. Sensors. 2013; 13(12):15912-15936.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ayala–Cabrera, David; Herrera, Manuel; Izquierdo, Joaquín; Ocaña–Levario, Silvia J.; Pérez–García, Rafael. 2013. "GPR-Based Water Leak Models in Water Distribution Systems." Sensors 13, no. 12: 15912-15936.

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