Next Article in Journal
Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Multiplatform Mobile Laser Scanning: Usability and Performance
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 11734-11753; doi:10.3390/s120911734

Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology

1,* , 2
1 Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/Fundació i2Cat, C/Esteve Terradas, 7, Castelldefels 08860, Spain 2 Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya/Fundació i2Cat, C/Jordi Girona, 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [615 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an emerging low-power wireless technology developed for short-range control and monitoring applications that is expected to be incorporated into billions of devices in the next few years. This paper describes the main features of BLE, explores its potential applications, and investigates the impact of various critical parameters on its performance. BLE represents a trade-off between energy consumption, latency, piconet size, and throughput that mainly depends on parameters such as connInterval and connSlaveLatency. According to theoretical results, the lifetime of a BLE device powered by a coin cell battery ranges between 2.0 days and 14.1 years. The number of simultaneous slaves per master ranges between 2 and 5,917. The minimum latency for a master to obtain a sensor reading is 676 µs, although simulation results show that, under high bit error rate, average latency increases by up to three orders of magnitude. The paper provides experimental results that complement the theoretical and simulation findings, and indicates implementation constraints that may reduce BLE performance.
Keywords: Bluetooth Low Energy; sensor networks; Internet of Things Bluetooth Low Energy; sensor networks; Internet of Things
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Gomez, C.; Oller, J.; Paradells, J. Overview and Evaluation of Bluetooth Low Energy: An Emerging Low-Power Wireless Technology. Sensors 2012, 12, 11734-11753.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert