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A Low-Cost, Portable, High-Throughput Wireless Sensor System for Phonocardiography Applications
School of Industrial Engineering & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Boonjitwitthaya School, Sriracha, Chonburi 20230, Thailand
Tata Consultancy Services, Chennai 600042, India
Department of Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Abstract: This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm ´ 5 cm ´ 1 cm), high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate), and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch) of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60–180 Hz through exercise testing.
Keywords: heart sound; phonocardiography applications; wireless sensor system
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Sa-ngasoongsong, A.; Kunthong, J.; Sarangan, V.; Cai, X.; Bukkapatnam, S.T.S. A Low-Cost, Portable, High-Throughput Wireless Sensor System for Phonocardiography Applications. Sensors 2012, 12, 10851-10870.
Sa-ngasoongsong A, Kunthong J, Sarangan V, Cai X, Bukkapatnam STS. A Low-Cost, Portable, High-Throughput Wireless Sensor System for Phonocardiography Applications. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10851-10870.
Sa-ngasoongsong, Akkarapol; Kunthong, Jakkrit; Sarangan, Venkatesh; Cai, Xinwei; Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S. 2012. "A Low-Cost, Portable, High-Throughput Wireless Sensor System for Phonocardiography Applications." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10851-10870.