Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10450-10462; doi:10.3390/s120810450
Article

Mechanisms for the Direct Electron Transfer of Cytochrome c Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

1,2
, 3
, 1,2
 and 3,*
Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [336 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]
Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified electrodes can promote the direct electron transfer (DET) of cytochrome c (Cyt c). There are several possible mechanisms that explain the DET of Cyt c. In this study, several experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the conformational changes of Cyt c induced by MWCNTs. The DET mechanism was demonstrated at various nano-levels: secondary structure, spatial orientation, and spin state. In the presence of MWCNTs, the secondary structure of Cyt c changes, which exposes the active site, then, the orientation of the heme is optimized, revolving the exposed active center to the optimum spatial orientation for DET; and finally, a transition of spin states is induced, providing relatively high energy and a more open microenvironment for electron transfer. These changes at different nano-levels are closely connected and form a complex process that promotes the electron transfer of Cyt c.
Keywords: direct electron transfer (DET); cytochrome c (Cyt c); multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT); secondary structure direct electron transfer (DET); cytochrome c (Cyt c); multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT); secondary structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, H.-Z.; Du, Q.; Li, Z.-S.; Yang, Q.-Z. Mechanisms for the Direct Electron Transfer of Cytochrome c Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Sensors 2012, 12, 10450-10462.

AMA Style

Zhao H-Z, Du Q, Li Z-S, Yang Q-Z. Mechanisms for the Direct Electron Transfer of Cytochrome c Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10450-10462.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Du, Qian; Li, Zhen-Shan; Yang, Qin-Zheng. 2012. "Mechanisms for the Direct Electron Transfer of Cytochrome c Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10450-10462.



Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert