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Grey Level and Noise Evaluation of a Foveon X3 Image Sensor: A Statistical and Experimental Approach
Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain
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Received: 29 June 2012; in revised form: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Abstract: Radiometric values on digital imagery are affected by several sources of uncertainty. A practical, comprehensive and flexible procedure to analyze the radiometric values and the uncertainty effects due to the camera sensor system is described in this paper. The procedure is performed on the grey level output signal using image raw units with digital numbers ranging from 0 to 212-1. The procedure is entirely based on statistical and experimental techniques. Design of Experiments (DoE) for Linear Models (LM) are derived to analyze the radiometric values and estimate the uncertainty. The presented linear model integrates all the individual sensor noise sources in one global component and characterizes the radiometric values and the uncertainty effects according to the influential factors such as the scene reflectance, wavelength range and time. The experiments are carried out under laboratory conditions to minimize the rest of uncertainty sources that might affect the radiometric values. It is confirmed the flexibility of the procedure to model and characterize the radiometric values, as well as to determine the behaviour of two phenomena when dealing with image sensors: the noise of a single image and the stability (trend and noise) of a sequence of images.
Keywords: noise; radiometry; grey level values; digital image; linear model (LM); design of experiments (DoE); photon transfer method (PTM)
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Riutort-Mayol, G.; Marqués-Mateu, Á.; Seguí, A.E.; Lerma, J.L. Grey Level and Noise Evaluation of a Foveon X3 Image Sensor: A Statistical and Experimental Approach. Sensors 2012, 12, 10339-10368.
Riutort-Mayol G, Marqués-Mateu Á, Seguí AE, Lerma JL. Grey Level and Noise Evaluation of a Foveon X3 Image Sensor: A Statistical and Experimental Approach. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):10339-10368.
Riutort-Mayol, Gabriel; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Seguí, Ana Elena; Lerma, José Luis. 2012. "Grey Level and Noise Evaluation of a Foveon X3 Image Sensor: A Statistical and Experimental Approach." Sensors 12, no. 8: 10339-10368.