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Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish
Department of Ocean Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Konan 4-5-7 Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2012; in revised form: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Abstract: We have developed a wireless biosensor system to continuously monitor L-lactic acid concentrations in fish. The blood L-lactic acid level of fish is a barometer of stress. The biosensor comprised Pt-Ir wire (φ0.178 mm) as the working electrode and Ag/AgCl paste as the reference electrode. Lactate oxidase was immobilized on the working electrode using glutaraldehyde. The sensor calibration was linear and good correlated with L-lactic acid levels (R = 0.9959) in the range of 0.04 to 6.0 mg·dL−1. We used the eyeball interstitial sclera fluid (EISF) as the site of sensor implantation. The blood L-lactic acid levels correlated closely with the EISF L-lactic acid levels in the range of 3 to 13 mg·dL−1 (R = 0.8173, n = 26). Wireless monitoring of L-lactic acid was performed using the sensor system in free-swimming fish in an aquarium. The sensor response was stable for over 60 h. Thus, our biosensor provided a rapid and convenient method for real-time monitoring of L-lactic acid levels in fish.
Keywords: L-lactic acid; fish; wireless; monitoring; interstitial fluid
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hibi, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Takase, M.; Ren, H.; Endo, H. Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish. Sensors 2012, 12, 6269-6281.
Hibi K, Hatanaka K, Takase M, Ren H, Endo H. Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):6269-6281.
Hibi, Kyoko; Hatanaka, Kengo; Takase, Mai; Ren, Huifeng; Endo, Hideaki. 2012. "Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish." Sensors 12, no. 5: 6269-6281.