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Sensors 2012, 12(5), 6269-6281; doi:10.3390/s120506269
Article

Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish

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Received: 9 April 2012; in revised form: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract: We have developed a wireless biosensor system to continuously monitor L-lactic acid concentrations in fish. The blood L-lactic acid level of fish is a barometer of stress. The biosensor comprised Pt-Ir wire (φ0.178 mm) as the working electrode and Ag/AgCl paste as the reference electrode. Lactate oxidase was immobilized on the working electrode using glutaraldehyde. The sensor calibration was linear and good correlated with L-lactic acid levels (R = 0.9959) in the range of 0.04 to 6.0 mg·dL−1. We used the eyeball interstitial sclera fluid (EISF) as the site of sensor implantation. The blood L-lactic acid levels correlated closely with the EISF L-lactic acid levels in the range of 3 to 13 mg·dL−1 (R = 0.8173, n = 26). Wireless monitoring of L-lactic acid was performed using the sensor system in free-swimming fish in an aquarium. The sensor response was stable for over 60 h. Thus, our biosensor provided a rapid and convenient method for real-time monitoring of L-lactic acid levels in fish.
Keywords: L-lactic acid; fish; wireless; monitoring; interstitial fluid L-lactic acid; fish; wireless; monitoring; interstitial fluid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hibi, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Takase, M.; Ren, H.; Endo, H. Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish. Sensors 2012, 12, 6269-6281.

AMA Style

Hibi K, Hatanaka K, Takase M, Ren H, Endo H. Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):6269-6281.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hibi, Kyoko; Hatanaka, Kengo; Takase, Mai; Ren, Huifeng; Endo, Hideaki. 2012. "Wireless Biosensor System for Real-Time L-Lactic Acid Monitoring in Fish." Sensors 12, no. 5: 6269-6281.



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