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Double-Ended Calibration of Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data
Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, CN Delft 2628, The Netherlands
Department of Geologic Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, MS 172, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2012; in revised form: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Abstract: Over the past five years, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) along fiber optic cables using Raman backscattering has become an important tool in the environmental sciences. Many environmental applications of DTS demand very accurate temperature measurements, with typical RMSE < 0.1 K. The aim of this paper is to describe and clarify the advantages and disadvantages of double-ended calibration to achieve such accuracy under field conditions. By measuring backscatter from both ends of the fiber optic cable, one can redress the effects of differential attenuation, as caused by bends, splices, and connectors. The methodological principles behind the double-ended calibration are presented, together with a set of practical considerations for field deployment. The results from a field experiment are presented, which show that with double-ended calibration good accuracies can be attained in the field.
Keywords: Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS); calibration; environmental monitoring; hydrology
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van de Giesen, N.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Jansen, J.; Hoes, O.; Hausner, M.B.; Tyler, S.; Selker, J. Double-Ended Calibration of Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Sensors 2012, 12, 5471-5485.
van de Giesen N, Steele-Dunne SC, Jansen J, Hoes O, Hausner MB, Tyler S, Selker J. Double-Ended Calibration of Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):5471-5485.
van de Giesen, Nick; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Jansen, Jop; Hoes, Olivier; Hausner, Mark B.; Tyler, Scott; Selker, John. 2012. "Double-Ended Calibration of Fiber-Optic Raman Spectra Distributed Temperature Sensing Data." Sensors 12, no. 5: 5471-5485.