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Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3068-3081; doi:10.3390/s120303068

Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia

1
Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
2
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
CESAM & Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Heavy metal concentrations were determined in 43 perches (Perca fluviatilis) and in two of its most common parasites, the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii and the cestode Proteocephalus percae, collected in the period 2009–2010 from Ružín, a seriously polluted water reservoir in Slovakia. Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, brain, male and female reproductive organs and adipose tissue of fish and both parasites were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations of individual heavy metals in all fish samples decreased in the order zinc > copper > manganese > mercury > arsenic > chromium > cadmium > nickel > lead. Zinc was found to be the dominant element and its antagonistic interaction with copper was confirmed. The kidney was a key target organ receiving the highest mean concentrations of all analyzed metals, but some metals showed specific affinity for particular tissues. In terms of human health, concentration of Hg in fish muscle, which exceeded more than two-times its maximum level admitted in foodstuffs in European countries, is of great importance and should be taken into account. Bioaccumulation factors (C[parasite]/C[fish tissue]) calculated for all elements indicated much higher detection skills of A. lucii and P. percae parasites than fish organs and hence, present results allow proposing both parasite models as useful tools to monitor aquatic environmental quality. Acanthocephalans, however, seem to be superior for heavy metal monitoring, also demonstrated under experimental conditions. Present results also indicate the decreasing heavy metal burden of the reservoir and its gradual recovery in the course of time. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; fish; parasites; bioaccumulation factors; experiment heavy metals; fish; parasites; bioaccumulation factors; experiment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brázová, T.; Torres, J.; Eira, C.; Hanzelová, V.; Miklisová, D.; Šalamún, P. Perch and Its Parasites as Heavy Metal Biomonitors in a Freshwater Environment: The Case Study of the Ružín Water Reservoir, Slovakia. Sensors 2012, 12, 3068-3081.

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