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Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1211-1279; doi:10.3390/s120201211
Review

Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

*  and
Received: 29 December 2011; in revised form: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 29 January 2012 / Published: 31 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collaborative Sensors)
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Abstract: A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.
Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI); electroencephalography (EEG); rehabilitation; artifact; neuroimaging; brain-machine interface; collaborative sensor system brain-computer interface (BCI); electroencephalography (EEG); rehabilitation; artifact; neuroimaging; brain-machine interface; collaborative sensor system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nicolas-Alonso, L.F.; Gomez-Gil, J. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review. Sensors 2012, 12, 1211-1279.

AMA Style

Nicolas-Alonso LF, Gomez-Gil J. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review. Sensors. 2012; 12(2):1211-1279.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime. 2012. "Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review." Sensors 12, no. 2: 1211-1279.


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