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Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15983-16007; doi:10.3390/s121115983

Performance Analysis of Constrained Loosely Coupled GPS/INS Integration Solutions

Istituto Superiore Mario Boella, Via P.C. Boggio 61, 10138 Torino, Italy
Exploration and Mining, Pullenvale, QLD 4069, Australia
Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


The paper investigates approaches for loosely coupled GPS/INS integration. Error performance is calculated using a reference trajectory. A performance improvement can be obtained by exploiting additional map information (for example, a road boundary). A constrained solution has been developed and its performance compared with an unconstrained one. The case of GPS outages is also investigated showing how a Kalman filter that operates on the last received GPS position and velocity measurements provides a performance benefit. Results are obtained by means of simulation studies and real data. View Full-Text
Keywords: loosely coupled integration; Kalman filter; constraints; GPS outages loosely coupled integration; Kalman filter; constraints; GPS outages

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falco, G.; Einicke, G.A.; Malos, J.T.; Dovis, F. Performance Analysis of Constrained Loosely Coupled GPS/INS Integration Solutions. Sensors 2012, 12, 15983-16007.

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