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Porous Bead-Based Diagnostic Platforms: Bridging the Gaps in Healthcare
Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main St MS-142, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main St MS-142, Houston, TX 77005, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2012; in revised form: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Abstract: Advances in lab-on-a-chip systems have strong potential for multiplexed detection of a wide range of analytes with reduced sample and reagent volume; lower costs and shorter analysis times. The completion of high-fidelity multiplexed and multiclass assays remains a challenge for the medical microdevice field; as it struggles to achieve and expand upon at the point-of-care the quality of results that are achieved now routinely in remote laboratory settings. This review article serves to explore for the first time the key intersection of multiplexed bead-based detection systems with integrated microfluidic structures alongside porous capture elements together with biomarker validation studies. These strategically important elements are evaluated here in the context of platform generation as suitable for near-patient testing. Essential issues related to the scalability of these modular sensor ensembles are explored as are attempts to move such multiplexed and multiclass platforms into large-scale clinical trials. Recent efforts in these bead sensors have shown advantages over planar microarrays in terms of their capacity to generate multiplexed test results with shorter analysis times. Through high surface-to-volume ratios and encoding capabilities; porous bead-based ensembles; when combined with microfluidic elements; allow for high-throughput testing for enzymatic assays; general chemistries; protein; antibody and oligonucleotide applications.
Keywords: point-of-care; beads; porous; immunoassays; microfluidics; clinical chemistry; validation
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chou, J.; Wong, J.; Christodoulides, N.; Floriano, P.N.; Sanchez, X.; McDevitt, J. Porous Bead-Based Diagnostic Platforms: Bridging the Gaps in Healthcare. Sensors 2012, 12, 15467-15499.
Chou J, Wong J, Christodoulides N, Floriano PN, Sanchez X, McDevitt J. Porous Bead-Based Diagnostic Platforms: Bridging the Gaps in Healthcare. Sensors. 2012; 12(11):15467-15499.
Chou, Jie; Wong, Jorge; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Sanchez, Ximena; McDevitt, John. 2012. "Porous Bead-Based Diagnostic Platforms: Bridging the Gaps in Healthcare." Sensors 12, no. 11: 15467-15499.