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Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14953-14967; doi:10.3390/s121114953
Article

Toward In Situ Monitoring of Water Contamination by Nitroenergetic Compounds

1,* , 2
, 3,†
, 4,†
, 5,†,* , 1
, 2
 and 1
1 Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA 2 NOVA Research Incorporated, Alexandria, VA 22308, USA 3 Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, Arecibo 00613, Puerto Rico 4 College of Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA 5 Biomedical Engineering, Lawrence Technological University, Southfield, MI 48075, USA Formerly at Naval Research Laboratory.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

We have previously described the application of novel porous organosilicate materials to the preconcentration of nitroenergetic targets from aqueous solution prior to HPLC analysis. The performance of the sorbents and the advantages of these types of materials over commercially available solid phase extraction sorbents have been demonstrated. Here, the development of systems for application of those sorbents to in situ monitoring is described. Considerations such as column pressure, particulate filtration, and component durability are discussed. The diameter of selected column housings, the sorbent bed depth, and the frits utilized significantly impact the utility of the sorbent columns in the prototype system. The impact of and necessity for improvements in the morphological characteristics of the sorbents as they relate to reduction in column pressure are detailed. The results of experiments utilizing a prototype system are presented. Data demonstrating feasibility for use of the sorbents in preconcentration prior to ion mobility spectrometry is also presented.
Keywords: perchlorate; RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene; periodic mesoporous organosilica; electrochemical; solid phase extraction perchlorate; RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene; periodic mesoporous organosilica; electrochemical; solid phase extraction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Johnson, B.J.; Leska, I.A.; Medina, A.; Dyson, N.F.; Nasir, M.; Melde, B.J.; Taft, J.R.; Charles, P.T. Toward In Situ Monitoring of Water Contamination by Nitroenergetic Compounds. Sensors 2012, 12, 14953-14967.

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