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Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14489-14507; doi:10.3390/s121114489
Article

Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots

1
, 1
, 2,*  and 2
Received: 16 August 2012; in revised form: 20 October 2012 / Accepted: 21 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
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Abstract: This paper presents an outdoors laser-based pedestrian tracking system using a group of mobile robots located near each other. Each robot detects pedestrians from its own laser scan image using an occupancy-grid-based method, and the robot tracks the detected pedestrians via Kalman filtering and global-nearest-neighbor (GNN)-based data association. The tracking data is broadcast to multiple robots through intercommunication and is combined using the covariance intersection (CI) method. For pedestrian tracking, each robot identifies its own posture using real-time-kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS) and laser scan matching. Using our cooperative tracking method, all the robots share the tracking data with each other; hence, individual robots can always recognize pedestrians that are invisible to any other robot. The simulation and experimental results show that cooperating tracking provides the tracking performance better than conventional individual tracking does. Our tracking system functions in a decentralized manner without any central server, and therefore, this provides a degree of scalability and robustness that cannot be achieved by conventional centralized architectures.
Keywords: pedestrian tracking; multi-mobile robots; laser range scanner; Bayesian filter; decentralized multi-sensor fusion pedestrian tracking; multi-mobile robots; laser range scanner; Bayesian filter; decentralized multi-sensor fusion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ozaki, M.; Kakimuma, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Takahashi, K. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots. Sensors 2012, 12, 14489-14507.

AMA Style

Ozaki M, Kakimuma K, Hashimoto M, Takahashi K. Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots. Sensors. 2012; 12(11):14489-14507.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozaki, Masataka; Kakimuma, Kei; Hashimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiko. 2012. "Laser-Based Pedestrian Tracking in Outdoor Environments by Multiple Mobile Robots." Sensors 12, no. 11: 14489-14507.



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