Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13813-13828; doi:10.3390/s121013813

Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

Jo┼żef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2012; in revised form: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 29 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
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Abstract: We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities.
Keywords: ECG-Derived; respiration; body; sensor; skin electrode; wireless

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MDPI and ACS Style

Trobec, R.; Rashkovska, A.; Avbelj, V. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor. Sensors 2012, 12, 13813-13828.

AMA Style

Trobec R, Rashkovska A, Avbelj V. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor. Sensors. 2012; 12(10):13813-13828.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trobec, Roman; Rashkovska, Aleksandra; Avbelj, Viktor. 2012. "Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor." Sensors 12, no. 10: 13813-13828.

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