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Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed
UNESCO MIRCEN: Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Centre for Microscopy, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2012; in revised form: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Abstract: In this study the mitochondrion is regarded as a target to reveal compounds that may be used to combat various diseases. Consequently, the sexual structures of yeasts (with high mitochondrial activity) were identified as sensors to screen for various anti-mitochondrial drugs that may be toxic to humans and that are directed, amongst others, against fungal diseases and cancer. Strikingly, these sensors indicated that chloroquine is a potent pro-mitochondrial drug which stimulated yeast sexual reproduction. In addition, these sensors also showed that some Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-malarial drugs, antifungal and anticancer drugs are anti-mitochondrial. These yeast sensor bio-assays may fast track studies aimed at discovering new drugs as well as their mechanisms and should now be further evaluated for selectivity towards anti-/ pro-mitochondrials, fertility drugs and contraceptives, using in vitro, in vivo, in silico and omics research.
Keywords: anticancer; anti-malarial; anti-mitochondrial; chloroquine; Lipomyces; NanoSAM; preservation; pro-mitochondrial; sensors; yeasts
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MDPI and ACS Style
Swart, C.; Olivier, A.; Dithebe, K.; Pohl, C.; Wyk, P.; Swart, H.; Coetsee, E.; Kock, L. Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed. Sensors 2012, 12, 13058-13074.
Swart C, Olivier A, Dithebe K, Pohl C, Wyk P, Swart H, Coetsee E, Kock L. Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed. Sensors. 2012; 12(10):13058-13074.
Swart, Chantel; Olivier, Andries; Dithebe, Khumisho; Pohl, Carolina; Wyk, Pieter van; Swart, Hendrik; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Kock, Lodewyk. 2012. "Yeast Sensors for Novel Drugs: Chloroquine and Others Revealed." Sensors 12, no. 10: 13058-13074.