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A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement
Department of Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan
Received: 4 August 2011; in revised form: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 27 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Abstract: Optical fiber sensors based on waveguide technology are promising and attractive in chemical, biotechnological, agronomy, and civil engineering applications. A microfluidic system equipped with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) capable of measuring chloride ion concentrations of several sample materials is presented. The LPFG-based microfluidic platform was shown to be effective in sensing very small quantities of samples and its transmitted light signal could easily be used as a measurand. The investigated sample materials included reverse osmosis (RO) water, tap water, dilute aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, dilute seawater, and seawater. By employing additionally a chloride ion-selective electrode sensor for the calibration of chloride-ion concentration, a useful correlation (R2 = 0.975) was found between the separately-measured chloride concentration and the light intensity transmitted through the LPFG at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the LPFG sensor by light intensity interrogation was determined to be 5.0 × 10−6 mW/mg/L for chloride ion concentrations below 2,400 mg/L. The results obtained from the analysis of data variations in time-series measurements for all sample materials show that standard deviations of output power were relatively small and found in the range of 7.413 × 10−5–2.769 × 10−3 mW. In addition, a fairly small coefficients of variations were also obtained, which were in the range of 0.03%–1.29% and decreased with the decrease of chloride ion concentrations of sample materials. Moreover, the analysis of stability performance of the LPFG sensor indicated that the random walk coefficient decreased with the increase of the chloride ion concentration, illustrating that measurement stability using the microfluidic platform was capable of measuring transmitted optical power with accuracy in the range of −0.8569 mW/√h to −0.5169 mW/√h. Furthermore, the bias stability was determined to be in the range of less than 6.134 × 10−8 mW/h with 600 s time cluster to less than 1.412 × 10−6 mW/h with 600 s time cluster. Thus, the proposed LPFG-based microfluidic platform has the potential for civil, chemical, biological, and biochemical sensing with aqueous solutions. The compact (3.5 × 4.2 cm), low-cost, real-time, small-volume (~70 µL), low-noise, and high-sensitive chloride ion sensing system reported here could hopefully benefit the development and applications in the field of chemical, biotechnical, soil and geotechnical, and civil engineering.
Keywords: microfluidic; long-period fiber grating (LPFG); chloride ion; transmitted optical power; random walk coefficient; bias stability
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Wang, J.-N. A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement. Sensors 2011, 11, 8550-8568.
Wang J-N. A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement. Sensors. 2011; 11(9):8550-8568.
Wang, Jian-Neng. 2011. "A Microfluidic Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensor Platform for Chloride Ion Concentration Measurement." Sensors 11, no. 9: 8550-8568.