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Sensors 2011, 11(9), 8569-8592; doi:10.3390/s110908569
Article

Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization

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Received: 1 August 2011; in revised form: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensorial Systems Applied to Intelligent Spaces)
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Abstract: The practical deployment of wireless positioning systems requires minimizing the calibration procedures while improving the location estimation accuracy. Received Signal Strength localization techniques using propagation channel models are the simplest alternative, but they are usually designed under the assumption that the radio propagation model is to be perfectly characterized a priori. In practice, this assumption does not hold and the localization results are affected by the inaccuracies of the theoretical, roughly calibrated or just imperfect channel models used to compute location. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted multilateration techniques to gain robustness with respect to these inaccuracies, reducing the dependency of having an optimal channel model. In particular, we propose two weighted least squares techniques based on the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning algorithms that specifically consider the accuracies of the different measurements to obtain a better estimation of the position. These techniques are compared to the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning techniques through both numerical simulations and an exhaustive set of real experiments on different types of wireless networks (a wireless sensor network, a WiFi network and a Bluetooth network). The algorithms not only produce better localization results with a very limited overhead in terms of computational cost but also achieve a greater robustness to inaccuracies in channel modeling.
Keywords: localization; positioning; wireless networks; least squares; received signal strength; channel model estimation localization; positioning; wireless networks; least squares; received signal strength; channel model estimation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tarrío, P.; Bernardos, A.M.; Casar, J.R. Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization. Sensors 2011, 11, 8569-8592.

AMA Style

Tarrío P, Bernardos AM, Casar JR. Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization. Sensors. 2011; 11(9):8569-8592.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tarrío, Paula; Bernardos, Ana M.; Casar, José R. 2011. "Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization." Sensors 11, no. 9: 8569-8592.



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