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Sensors 2011, 11(8), 7382-7394; doi:10.3390/s110807382

Estimating the Biodegradability of Treated Sewage Samples Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

1
Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Water and Environment, Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon 306-711, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified from the SFS of the effluent wastewater samples. Protein-like fluorescence (PLF) was reduced, whereas fulvic and/or humic-like fluorescence (HLF) were enhanced, suggesting that the two fluorescence characteristics may represent biodegradable and refractory components, respectively. Five fluorescence indices were selected for the biodegradability estimation based on the spectral features changing from the influent to the effluent. Among the selected indices, the relative distribution of PLF to the total fluorescence area of SFS (Index II) exhibited the highest correlation coefficient with total organic carbon (TOC)-based biodegradability, which was even higher than those obtained with the traditional oxygen demand-based parameters. A multiple regression analysis using Index II and the area ratio of PLF to HLF (Index III) demonstrated the enhancement of the correlations from 0.558 to 0.711 for TOC-based biodegradability. The multiple regression equation finally obtained was 0.148 ´ Index II − 4.964 ´ Index III − 0.001 and 0.046 ´ Index II − 1.128 ´ Index III + 0.026. The fluorescence indices proposed here are expected to be utilized for successful development of real-time monitoring using a simple fluorescence sensing device for the biodegradability of treated sewage. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodegradability; synchronous fluorescence spectrum; derivative spectroscopy; multiple regression analysis; wastewater biodegradability; synchronous fluorescence spectrum; derivative spectroscopy; multiple regression analysis; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, T.M.; Shin, J.-K.; Hur, J. Estimating the Biodegradability of Treated Sewage Samples Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra. Sensors 2011, 11, 7382-7394.

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