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Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3970-3987; doi:10.3390/s110403970
Article

Metallo-Graphene Nanocomposite Electrocatalytic Platform for the Determination of Toxic Metal Ions

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,
* ,
 and
Sensor Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2011 / Revised: 20 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

A Nafion-Graphene (Nafion-G) nanocomposite solution in combination with an in situ plated mercury film electrode was used as a highly sensitive electrochemical platform for the determination of Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.6) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Various operational parameters such as deposition potential, deposition time and electrode rotation speed were optimized. The Nafion-G nanocomposite sensing platform exhibited improved sensitivity for metal ion detection, in addition to well defined, reproducible and sharp stripping signals. The linear calibration curves ranged from 1 µg L−1 to 7 µg L−1 for individual analysis. The detection limits (3σ blank/slope) obtained were 0.07 µg L−1 for Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ and 0.08 µg L−1 for Cd2+ at a deposition time of 120 s. For practical applications recovery studies was done by spiking test samples with known concentrations and comparing the results with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. This was followed by real sample analysis.
Keywords: Nafion-Graphene nanocomposite; mercury film; trace metals; square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry Nafion-Graphene nanocomposite; mercury film; trace metals; square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Willemse, C.M.; Tlhomelang, K.; Jahed, N.; Baker, P.G.; Iwuoha, E.I. Metallo-Graphene Nanocomposite Electrocatalytic Platform for the Determination of Toxic Metal Ions. Sensors 2011, 11, 3970-3987.

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