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Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3970-3987; doi:10.3390/s110403970
Article

Metallo-Graphene Nanocomposite Electrocatalytic Platform for the Determination of Toxic Metal Ions

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, * ,
 and
Sensor Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2011 / Revised: 20 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

A Nafion-Graphene (Nafion-G) nanocomposite solution in combination with an in situ plated mercury film electrode was used as a highly sensitive electrochemical platform for the determination of Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.6) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Various operational parameters such as deposition potential, deposition time and electrode rotation speed were optimized. The Nafion-G nanocomposite sensing platform exhibited improved sensitivity for metal ion detection, in addition to well defined, reproducible and sharp stripping signals. The linear calibration curves ranged from 1 µg L−1 to 7 µg L−1 for individual analysis. The detection limits (3σ blank/slope) obtained were 0.07 µg L−1 for Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ and 0.08 µg L−1 for Cd2+ at a deposition time of 120 s. For practical applications recovery studies was done by spiking test samples with known concentrations and comparing the results with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. This was followed by real sample analysis.
Keywords: Nafion-Graphene nanocomposite; mercury film; trace metals; square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry Nafion-Graphene nanocomposite; mercury film; trace metals; square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Willemse, C.M.; Tlhomelang, K.; Jahed, N.; Baker, P.G.; Iwuoha, E.I. Metallo-Graphene Nanocomposite Electrocatalytic Platform for the Determination of Toxic Metal Ions. Sensors 2011, 11, 3970-3987.

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