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Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1489-1525; doi:10.3390/s110201489
Review

Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Biomechanics and Biomedicine)
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Abstract

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation.
Keywords: human body motion tracking; inertial/magnetic sensing; strap-down inertial navigation; sensor fusion; Kalman filtering; quaternion human body motion tracking; inertial/magnetic sensing; strap-down inertial navigation; sensor fusion; Kalman filtering; quaternion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sabatini, A.M. Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing. Sensors 2011, 11, 1489-1525.

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