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Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9667-9684; doi:10.3390/s111009667
Article

Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties

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Received: 1 September 2011; in revised form: 29 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 12 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
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Abstract: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from luminescent terbium complexes (LTC) as donors to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as acceptors allows extraordinary large FRET efficiencies due to the long Förster distances afforded. Moreover, time-gated detection permits an efficient suppression of autofluorescent background leading to sub-picomolar detection limits even within multiplexed detection formats. These characteristics make FRET-systems with LTC and QDs excellent candidates for clinical diagnostics. So far, such proofs of principle for highly sensitive multiplexed biosensing have only been performed under optimized buffer conditions and interactions between real-life clinical media such as human serum or plasma and LTC-QD-FRET-systems have not yet been taken into account. Here we present an extensive spectroscopic analysis of absorption, excitation and emission spectra along with the luminescence decay times of both the single components as well as the assembled FRET-systems in TRIS-buffer, TRIS-buffer with 2% bovine serum albumin, and fresh human plasma. Moreover, we evaluated homogeneous LTC-QD FRET assays in QD conjugates assembled with either the well-known, specific biotin-streptavidin biological interaction or, alternatively, the metal-affinity coordination of histidine to zinc. In the case of conjugates assembled with biotin-streptavidin no significant interference with the optical and binding properties occurs whereas the histidine-zinc system appears to be affected by human plasma.
Keywords: FRET; quantum dots; terbium; luminescence lifetime; blood; plasma; clinical diagnostics; biotin; streptavidin; histidin; immunoassay FRET; quantum dots; terbium; luminescence lifetime; blood; plasma; clinical diagnostics; biotin; streptavidin; histidin; immunoassay
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Morgner, F.; Stufler, S.; Geißler, D.; Medintz, I.L.; Algar, W.R.; Susumu, K.; Stewart, M.H.; Blanco-Canosa, J.B.; Dawson, P.E.; Hildebrandt, N. Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties. Sensors 2011, 11, 9667-9684.

AMA Style

Morgner F, Stufler S, Geißler D, Medintz IL, Algar WR, Susumu K, Stewart MH, Blanco-Canosa JB, Dawson PE, Hildebrandt N. Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties. Sensors. 2011; 11(10):9667-9684.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morgner, Frank; Stufler, Stefan; Geißler, Daniel; Medintz, Igor L.; Algar, W. Russ; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H.; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B.; Dawson, Philip E.; Hildebrandt, Niko. 2011. "Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties." Sensors 11, no. 10: 9667-9684.



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