Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
School of Information Science and Technology, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China
Department of Information and Computer Science, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2011; in revised form: 10 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
Abstract: The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; obstacle avoidance; game theory; Nash equilibrium
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Guan, X.; Wu, H.; Bi, S. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2011, 11, 9327-9343.
Guan X, Wu H, Bi S. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2011; 11(10):9327-9343.
Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun. 2011. "A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 11, no. 10: 9327-9343.