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Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9327-9343; doi:10.3390/s111009327

A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

1,2,* , 1
1 School of Information Science and Technology, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China 2 Department of Information and Computer Science, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 10 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 29 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; obstacle avoidance; game theory; Nash equilibrium wireless sensor networks; obstacle avoidance; game theory; Nash equilibrium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Guan, X.; Wu, H.; Bi, S. A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2011, 11, 9327-9343.

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