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Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction
Department of Chemistry, Berry College, 2277 Martha Berry Highway, P.O. Box 5016, Mt. Berry, GA 20149, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, 2190 E. Iliff Ave., Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2010; in revised form: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Abstract: In 1962, Clark and Lyons proposed incorporating the enzyme glucose oxidase in the construction of an electrochemical sensor for glucose in blood plasma. In their application, Clark and Lyons describe an electrode in which a membrane permeable to glucose traps a small volume of solution containing the enzyme adjacent to a pH electrode, and the presence of glucose is detected by the change in the electrode potential that occurs when glucose reacts with the enzyme in this volume of solution. Although described nearly 50 years ago, this seminal development provides the general structure for constructing electrochemical glucose sensors that is still used today. Despite the maturity of the field, new developments that explore solutions to the fundamental limitations of electrochemical glucose sensors continue to emerge. Here we discuss two developments of the last 15 years; confining the enzyme and a redox mediator to a very thin molecular films at electrode surfaces by electrostatic assembly, and the use of electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to leverage the electrocatalytic effect of the CNTs to reduce the oxidation overpotential of the electrode reaction or for the direct electron transport to the enzyme.
Keywords: glucose oxidase; electrochemical sensors; electrostatic assembly; carbon nanotubes
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Harper, A.; Anderson, M.R. Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction. Sensors 2010, 10, 8248-8274.
Harper A, Anderson MR. Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction. Sensors. 2010; 10(9):8248-8274.
Harper, Alice; Anderson, Mark R. 2010. "Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction." Sensors 10, no. 9: 8248-8274.