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Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review
Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104, USA
Building Excellence in Science and Technology, Berrien Springs, MI 49103, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2010; in revised form: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 24 June 2010 / Published: 21 July 2010
Abstract: Many organophosphorus (OP) based compounds are highly toxic and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases that generate serious environmental and human health concerns. Organothiophosphates with a thiophosphoryl (P=S) functional group constitute a broad class of these widely used pesticides. They are related to the more reactive phosphoryl (P=O) organophosphates, which include very lethal nerve agents and chemical warfare agents, such as, VX, Soman and Sarin. Unfortunately, widespread and frequent commercial use of OP-based compounds in agricultural lands has resulted in their presence as residues in crops, livestock, and poultry products and also led to their migration into aquifers. Thus, the design of new sensors with improved analyte selectivity and sensitivity is of paramount importance in this area. Herein, we review recent advances in the development of fluorescent chemosensors for toxic OP pesticides and related compounds. We also discuss challenges and progress towards the design of future chemosensors with dual modes for signal transduction.
Keywords: organophosphorus compounds; fluorescent chemosensors; pollutants; dual modes of signal transduction
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Obare, S.O.; De, C.; Guo, W.; Haywood, T.L.; Samuels, T.A.; Adams, C.P.; Masika, N.O.; Murray, D.H.; Anderson, G.A.; Campbell, K.; Fletcher, K. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review. Sensors 2010, 10, 7018-7043.
Obare SO, De C, Guo W, Haywood TL, Samuels TA, Adams CP, Masika NO, Murray DH, Anderson GA, Campbell K, Fletcher K. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review. Sensors. 2010; 10(7):7018-7043.
Obare, Sherine O.; De, Chandrima; Guo, Wen; Haywood, Tajay L.; Samuels, Tova A.; Adams, Clara P.; Masika, Noah O.; Murray, Desmond H.; Anderson, Ginger A.; Campbell, Keith; Fletcher, Kenneth. 2010. "Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review." Sensors 10, no. 7: 7018-7043.