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Environmentally Sensitive Fluorescent Sensors Based on Synthetic Peptides
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 7018-7043; doi:10.3390/s100707018

Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review

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1 Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104, USA 3 Building Excellence in Science and Technology, Berrien Springs, MI 49103, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 24 June 2010 / Published: 21 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Chemosensors)
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Many organophosphorus (OP) based compounds are highly toxic and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases that generate serious environmental and human health concerns. Organothiophosphates with a thiophosphoryl (P=S) functional group constitute a broad class of these widely used pesticides. They are related to the more reactive phosphoryl (P=O) organophosphates, which include very lethal nerve agents and chemical warfare agents, such as, VX, Soman and Sarin. Unfortunately, widespread and frequent commercial use of OP-based compounds in agricultural lands has resulted in their presence as residues in crops, livestock, and poultry products and also led to their migration into aquifers. Thus, the design of new sensors with improved analyte selectivity and sensitivity is of paramount importance in this area. Herein, we review recent advances in the development of fluorescent chemosensors for toxic OP pesticides and related compounds. We also discuss challenges and progress towards the design of future chemosensors with dual modes for signal transduction.
Keywords: organophosphorus compounds; fluorescent chemosensors; pollutants; dual modes of signal transduction organophosphorus compounds; fluorescent chemosensors; pollutants; dual modes of signal transduction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Obare, S.O.; De, C.; Guo, W.; Haywood, T.L.; Samuels, T.A.; Adams, C.P.; Masika, N.O.; Murray, D.H.; Anderson, G.A.; Campbell, K.; Fletcher, K. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review. Sensors 2010, 10, 7018-7043.

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