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Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5425-5442; doi:10.3390/s100605425
Article

A Differential Evolution-Based Routing Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks

1,* , 1
,
1
,
1
 and
2
1 College of Computer and Information, Hohai University, Nanjing, China 2 School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2010 / Revised: 29 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

The traditional Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is a clustering-based protocol. The uneven selection of cluster heads results in premature death of cluster heads and premature blind nodes inside the clusters, thus reducing the overall lifetime of the network. With a full consideration of information on energy and distance distribution of neighboring nodes inside the clusters, this paper proposes a new routing algorithm based on differential evolution (DE) to improve the LEACH routing protocol. To meet the requirements of monitoring applications in outdoor environments such as the meteorological, hydrological and wetland ecological environments, the proposed algorithm uses the simple and fast search features of DE to optimize the multi-objective selection of cluster heads and prevent blind nodes for improved energy efficiency and system stability. Simulation results show that the proposed new LEACH routing algorithm has better performance, effectively extends the working lifetime of the system, and improves the quality of the wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: environmental monitoring; meteorological and hydrological telemetry; Wireless Sensor Networks; Differential Evolution Algorithm; LEACH protocol environmental monitoring; meteorological and hydrological telemetry; Wireless Sensor Networks; Differential Evolution Algorithm; LEACH protocol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Li, X.; Xu, L.; Wang, H.; Song, J.; Yang, S.X. A Differential Evolution-Based Routing Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2010, 10, 5425-5442.

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