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Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Street, Warsaw 02-507, Poland
Inter-Academy Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Wybrzeże Kościuszkowskie 37, 00-379 Warsaw; Poland
Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 3 Noakowskiego Street, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2010; in revised form: 29 April 2010 / Accepted: 4 May 2010 / Published: 14 May 2010
Abstract: Metal artworks are subjected to corrosion and oxidation processes due to reactive agents present in the air, water and in the ground that these objects have been in contact with for hundreds of years. This is the case for archaeological metals that are recovered from excavation sites, as well as artefacts exposed to polluted air. Stabilization of the conservation state of these objects needs precise diagnostics of the accrued surface layers and identification of original, historical materials before further protective treatments, including safe laser cleaning of unwanted layers. This paper presents analyses of the chemical composition and stratigraphy of corrosion products with the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy. The discussion of the results is supported by material studies (SEM-EDS, XRF, ion-analyses). The tests were performed on several samples taken from original objects, including copper roofing from Wilanów Palace in Warsaw and Karol Poznański Palace in Łódź, bronze decorative figures from the Wilanów Palace gardens, and four archaeological examples of old jewellery (different copper alloys). Work has been performed as a part of the MATLAS project in the frames of EEA and Norway Grants (www.matlas.eu) and the results enable the comparison of the methodology and to elaborate the joint diagnostic procedures of the three project partner independent laboratories.
Keywords: metal artworks; environmental pollution; laser spectroscopy; artwork diagnostics
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Ciupiński, Ł.; Fortuna-Zaleśna, E.; Garbacz, H.; Koss, A.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.; Marczak, J.; Mróz, J.; Onyszczuk, T.; Rycyk, A.; Sarzyński, A.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Strzelec, M.; Zatorska, A.; Żukowska, G.Z. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution. Sensors 2010, 10, 4926-4949.
Ciupiński Ł, Fortuna-Zaleśna E, Garbacz H, Koss A, Kurzydłowski KJ, Marczak J, Mróz J, Onyszczuk T, Rycyk A, Sarzyński A, Skrzeczanowski W, Strzelec M, Zatorska A, Żukowska GZ. Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution. Sensors. 2010; 10(5):4926-4949.
Ciupiński, Łukasz; Fortuna-Zaleśna, Elżbieta; Garbacz, Halina; Koss, Andrzej; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Marczak, Jan; Mróz, Janusz; Onyszczuk, Tomasz; Rycyk, Antoni; Sarzyński, Antoni; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Strzelec, Marek; Zatorska, Anna; Żukowska, Grażyna Z. 2010. "Comparative Laser Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Ancient Metallic Artefacts Exposed to Environmental Pollution." Sensors 10, no. 5: 4926-4949.