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Potential for Development of an Escherichia coli—Based Biosensor for Assessing Bioavailable Methionine: A Review
Poultry Science Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2472, USA
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA
Current address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Food Technologies, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Current address: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Shreveport, LA 71129, USA.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2010; in revised form: 11 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
Abstract: Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent estimation of digestible methionine in feeds and feed ingredients. The current review discusses the potential to develop Escherichia coli-based microbial biosensors for methionine bioavailability quantification. Methionine biosynthesis and regulation pathways are overviewed in relation to genetic manipulation required for the generation of a respective methionine auxotroph that could be practical for a routine bioassay. A prospective utilization of Escherichia coli methionine biosensor would allow for inexpensive and rapid methionine quantification and ultimately enable timely assessment of nutritional profiles of feedstuffs.
Keywords: methionine; microbial biosensors; Escherichia coli; bioavailability
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Chalova, V.I.; Froelich, C.A., Jr.; Ricke, S.C. Potential for Development of an Escherichia coli—Based Biosensor for Assessing Bioavailable Methionine: A Review. Sensors 2010, 10, 3562-3584.
Chalova VI, Froelich CA, Jr, Ricke SC. Potential for Development of an Escherichia coli—Based Biosensor for Assessing Bioavailable Methionine: A Review. Sensors. 2010; 10(4):3562-3584.
Chalova, Vesela I.; Froelich, Clifford A., Jr.; Ricke, Steven C. 2010. "Potential for Development of an Escherichia coli—Based Biosensor for Assessing Bioavailable Methionine: A Review." Sensors 10, no. 4: 3562-3584.