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Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes
Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2010; in revised form: 13 March 2010 / Accepted: 23 March 2010 / Published: 29 March 2010
Abstract: Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.
Keywords: body fluids; semen; blood; saliva; forensic medicine; human; discriminant analysis; spectroscopy; spectrum analysis; Raman spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sikirzhytski, V.; Virkler, K.; Lednev, I.K. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes. Sensors 2010, 10, 2869-2884.
Sikirzhytski V, Virkler K, Lednev IK. Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes. Sensors. 2010; 10(4):2869-2884.
Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K. 2010. "Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes." Sensors 10, no. 4: 2869-2884.