- freely available
Sensors 2010, 10(2), 1251-1278; doi:10.3390/s100201251
2. Literature Review
- Acknowledgement spoofing.
- Selective forwarding.
- Sybil attacks.
- Wormholes attacks.
- Sinkhole attacks.
- Hello flood attacks.
3. Secure Adaptive Distributed Topology Control Algorithm
3.1. Phase I: Anti-node Detection
3.2. Phase II: Cluster Formation
3.3. Phase III: Key Distribution
3.4. Phase IV: Key Renewal
4. Determining the Quarantine Region
4.1. Method 1: Quarantine for Clusters
4.2. Method 2: Quarantine for Nodes
4.3. Method 3: The Infected Areas
5. Performance Analysis
5.1. The Routing Variation
5.2. Analysis of Energy Consumption
Phase II: Clusterhead Selection
Phase III: Key Distribution
Phase IV: Key Renewal
5.3. Comparison of the SADTCA and the DADS
6.1. Case I: Quarantine for Clusters
6.2. Case II: Quarantine for Nodes
6.3. Quarantine for Infected Areas (Cases III and IV)
6.4. Proportion of the Quarantine Region
6.5. Energy Consumption
References and Notes
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|1. Each sensor initializes a random waiting timer with a value .|
|2. Each sensor encrypts the Plaintext with the Hello message.|
|3. Each sensor transmits the Hello message at random times:|
Draw a sample r from the distribution , where 0 < λ < 0.5 wait r time units and then transmit the Hello.
|4. Each sensor receives the Hello message and decrypts it.|
|if the decrypted Ciphertext is the same as the preload message|
|the sensor is a normal node.|
|(a) the sensor is an anti-node.|
|(b) it should be removed from the neighbor list.|
|5. Establish and update the neighbor identification:|
|if a sensor receives a message of assigning a cluster ID at time step k|
|(a) join the corresponding cluster.|
|(b) draw a sample r′ from the distribution .|
|(c) wait r′ time units and then send an updated Hello message with the new cluster ID.|
|(d) stop the waiting timer. (Stop!)|
|collect neighboring information.|
|6. Decrease the random waiting time according to equation (1).|
|7. Clusterhead check:|
|if WTi = 0 and the neighboring sensors are not in another cluster|
|(a) broadcast itself to be a clusterhead.|
|(b) assign the neighboring sensors to cluster ID i. (Stop!)|
|elseif WTi = 0 and some of the neighboring sensors are in other clusters|
|stand by. (Stop!)|
|go to Step 3.|
|while (sensor ni is a neighboring sensor of mj)|
|if ni is a clusterhead|
|where is the counter of sensor ni for cluster j, with a positive integer α, dnimj is the distance between sensors ni and mj, and R is the transmission range.|
|a) Based on the cluster formation in Phase I, clusterheads broadcast messages to trigger the gateway selection process.|
|b) Initialize a vector of random waiting times , where is the waiting time of sensor ni for cluster j at time step k.|
|c) Initialize a counter of sensor ni, , for gateway selection in cluster i to cluster j.|
|d) Decrease the waiting time|
|e) Gateway check:|
|(1) assign Gij = ni, and then|
|Gij broadcasts the gateway information to its neighbors.|
|(2) set and stop the waiting timer for all neighboring sensors xi in cluster i.|
|go to step d).|
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