Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols
Next Article in Special Issue
Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives
Previous Article in Journal
A Local Weighted Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and a Weighted and Constrained Least-Squared Method for Mixed Odor Analysis by Electronic Nose Systems
Previous Article in Special Issue
Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-)Semiconductor Structures
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10484-10505; doi:10.3390/s101110484
Review

Photo-Detectors for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET)

1
 and 1,2,*
1 Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS) and Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive 94305, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2 Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 27 October 2010 / Accepted: 30 October 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodetectors and Imaging Technologies)
Download PDF [1603 KB, 21 June 2014; original version 21 June 2014]

Abstract

We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight positron emission tomography (ToF-PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident (temporally correlated) annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector typically comprises a scintillation crystal coupled to a fast photo-detector. ToF information provides better localization of the annihilation event along the line formed by each detector pair, resulting in an overall improvement in signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image. Apart from the demand for high luminosity and fast decay time of the scintillation crystal, proper design and selection of the photo-detector and methods for arrival time pick-off are a prerequisite for achieving excellent time resolution required for ToF-PET. We review the two types of photo-detectors used in ToF-PET: photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) with a special focus on SiPMs.
Keywords: positron emission tomography; time of flight; silicon photo-multipliers positron emission tomography; time of flight; silicon photo-multipliers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Spanoudaki, V.C.; Levin, C.S. Photo-Detectors for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (ToF-PET). Sensors 2010, 10, 10484-10505.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert