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Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, Wakayama 649-6493, Japan
Kinki University Technical College, Kumano, Mie 519-4935, Japan
Sharp Corporation, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 721-8522, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2009; in revised form: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Abstract: Our experiencein the design of an ultra-high speed image sensor targeting the theoretical maximum frame rate is summarized. The imager is the backside illuminated in situ storage image sensor (BSI ISIS). It is confirmed that the critical factor limiting the highest frame rate is the signal electron transit time from the generation layer at the back side of each pixel to the input gate to the in situ storage area on the front side. The theoretical maximum frame rate is estimated at 100 Mega-frames per second (Mfps) by transient simulation study. The sensor has a spatial resolution of 140,800 pixels with 126 linear storage elements installed in each pixel. The very high sensitivity is ensured by application of backside illumination technology and cooling. The ultra-high frame rate is achieved by the in situ storage image sensor (ISIS) structure on the front side. In this paper, we summarize technologies developed to achieve the theoretical maximum frame rate, including: (1) a special p-well design by triple injections to generate a smooth electric field backside towards the collection gate on the front side, resulting in much shorter electron transit time; (2) design technique to reduce RC delay by employing an extra metal layer exclusively to electrodes responsible for ultra-high speed image capturing; (3) a CCD specific complementary on-chip inductance minimization technique with a couple of stacked differential bus lines.
Keywords: backside illumination; CCD; high speed; high sensitivity; image sensor; ISIS
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Vu Truong Son, D.; Goji Etoh, T.; Tanaka, M.; Hoang Dung, N.; Le Cuong, V.; Takehara, K.; Akino, T.; Nishi, K.; Aoki, H.; Nakai, J. Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor. Sensors 2010, 10, 16-35.
Vu Truong Son D, Goji Etoh T, Tanaka M, Hoang Dung N, Le Cuong V, Takehara K, Akino T, Nishi K, Aoki H, Nakai J. Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor. Sensors. 2010; 10(1):16-35.
Vu Truong Son, Dao; Goji Etoh, Takeharu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Hoang Dung, Nguyen; Le Cuong, Vo; Takehara, Kohsei; Akino, Toshiro; Nishi, Kenji; Aoki, Hitoshi; Nakai, Junichi. 2010. "Toward 100 Mega-Frames per Second: Design of an Ultimate Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor." Sensors 10, no. 1: 16-35.