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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041203

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Exerts Diverse Cellular Effects via Small G Proteins, Rho and Rap

1
Division of Molecular Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
2
Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
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Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) include five molecules (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, and placental growth factor), and have various roles that crucially regulate cellular functions in many kinds of cells and tissues. Intracellular signal transduction induced by VEGFs has been extensively studied and is usually initiated by their binding to two classes of transmembrane receptors: receptor tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors (VEGF receptor-1, -2 and -3) and neuropilins (NRP1 and NRP2). In addition to many established results reported by other research groups, we have previously identified small G proteins, especially Ras homologue gene (Rho) and Ras-related protein (Rap), as important mediators of VEGF-A-stimulated signaling in cancer cells as well as endothelial cells. This review article describes the VEGF-A-induced signaling pathways underlying diverse cellular functions, including cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, and the involvement of Rho, Rap, and their related molecules in these pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; cell adhesion; cell migration; cell proliferation; growth factor; small G protein; tumor progression angiogenesis; cell adhesion; cell migration; cell proliferation; growth factor; small G protein; tumor progression
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Shimizu, A.; Zankov, D.P.; Kurokawa-Seo, M.; Ogita, H. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Exerts Diverse Cellular Effects via Small G Proteins, Rho and Rap. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1203.

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