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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041204

Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Investigation of VaHAESA from Vitis amurensis Inoculated with Plasmopara viticola

1,†
,
1,†
,
2
,
3,4
and
1,*
1
The Viticulture and Enology Program, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Center for Plant Biology, TSinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3
Center for Viticulture and Enology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200024, China
4
Guangxi Crop Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology Laboratory, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 2.0)
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Abstract

Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for immune responses and establishing symbiosis. Plants detect invaders via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by PRRs. This phenomenon is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We investigated disease resistance in Vitis amurensis to identify PRRs that are important for resistance against downy mildew, analyzed the PRRs that were upregulated by incompatible Plasmopara viticola infection, and cloned the full-length cDNA of the VaHAESA gene. We then analyzed the structure, subcellular localization, and relative disease resistance of VaHAESA. VaHAESA and PRR-receptor-like kinase 5 (RLK5) are highly similar, belonging to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK family and localizing to the plasma membrane. The expression of PRR genes changed after the inoculation of V. amurensis with compatible and incompatible P. viticola; during early disease development, transiently transformed V. vinifera plants expressing VaHAESA were more resistant to pathogens than those transformed with the empty vector and untransformed controls, potentially due to increased H2O2, NO, and callose levels in the transformants. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana showed upregulated expression of genes related to the PTI pathway and improved disease resistance. These results show that VaHAESA is a positive regulator of resistance against downy mildew in grapevines. View Full-Text
Keywords: downy mildew; grapevine; PRRs; PTI; VaHAESA downy mildew; grapevine; PRRs; PTI; VaHAESA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, S.; Zhang, C.; Chao, N.; Lu, J.; Zhang, Y. Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Investigation of VaHAESA from Vitis amurensis Inoculated with Plasmopara viticola. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1204.

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