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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1879; doi:10.3390/ijms18091879

Health-Promoting Effects of Thymus herba-barona, Thymus pseudolanuginosus, and Thymus caespititius Decoctions

1
Department of Chemistry & QOPNA, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Public Health Laboratory of Bragança, Local Health Unit, Rua Eng. Adelino Amaro da Costa, 5300-146 Bragança, Portugal
3
Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technologies, School of Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Av. D. Afonso V, 5300-121 Bragança, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Thymus herba-barona, Thymus pseudolanuginosus, and Thymus caespititius decoctions were screened for their phenolic constituents, along with their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities. The total phenolic compounds in the extracts of the three plants ranged from 236.0 ± 26.6 mgGAE/g (T. caespititus) to 293.0 ± 30.5 mgGAE/g of extract (T. pseudolanuginosus), being particularly rich in caffeic acid derivatives, namely rosmarinic acid and its structural isomers, as well as flavones, such as luteolin-O-glucuronide. The T. pseudolanuginosus extract presented the best DPPH radical scavenging ability (EC50 = 10.9 ± 0.7 µg/mL), a high reducing power (EC50 = 32.2 ± 8.2 µg/mL), and effectively inhibited the oxidation of β-carotene (EC50 = 2.4 ± 0.2 µg/mL). The extracts also showed NO scavenging activity close to that of ascorbic acid, and thus might be useful as anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus strains were the most sensitive bacteria to thyme extracts, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.6–3.5 mg/mL. Overall, this work is an important contribution for the phytochemical characterization and the potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of these three Thymus species, which have been poorly explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: thymus; thyme; LC-MS; mass spectrometry; phenolic; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; antiradicalar; antimicrobial activity thymus; thyme; LC-MS; mass spectrometry; phenolic; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; antiradicalar; antimicrobial activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Afonso, A.F.; Pereira, O.R.; Neto, R.T.; Silva, A.M.S.; Cardoso, S.M. Health-Promoting Effects of Thymus herba-barona, Thymus pseudolanuginosus, and Thymus caespititius Decoctions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1879.

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