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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1887; doi:10.3390/ijms18091887

Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer

1
Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, San Gallicano Institute, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), 00144 Rome, Italy
2
Infectious Disease Consultant, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), 00144 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation)
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Abstract

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC). It is now well recognised, that S. Typhi produces a typhoid toxin with a carcinogenic potential, that induces DNA damage and cell cycle alterations in intoxicated cells. In addition, biofilm production by S. Typhi may represent a key factor for the promotion of a persistent infection in the gallbladder, thus sustaining a chronic local inflammatory response and exposing the epithelium to repeated damage caused by carcinogenic toxins. This review aims to highlight the putative connection between the chronic colonization by highly pathogenic strains of S. Typhi capable of combining biofilm and toxin production and the onset of GC. Considering the high risk of GC associated with the asymptomatic carrier status, the rapid identification and profiling of biofilm production by S. Typhi strains would be key for effective therapeutic management and cancer prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; Salmonella Typhi; gallbladder cancer; skin manifestations; toxin; DNA Damage Response; infection; inflammation; gallstone biofilm; Salmonella Typhi; gallbladder cancer; skin manifestations; toxin; DNA Damage Response; infection; inflammation; gallstone
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Domenico, E.G.; Cavallo, I.; Pontone, M.; Toma, L.; Ensoli, F. Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1887.

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